Feb 20, 2011

The Concept of Job Satisfaction

A.    Understanding Job Satisfaction

Job satisfaction is an important thing an individual has in the works. Each individual workers have different characteristics, then the level of work satisfaction were different also. High or low job satisfaction can have an impact that is not the same. High job satisfaction is very possible to promote the establishment of company goals. While low levels of job satisfaction is a threat that will bring destruction and gradually the company promptly.

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Regresi Analysis


In general there are two kinds of relationship between two or more variables, namely the form of the relationship and the relationship. To determine the form of the relationshipused regression analysis. For the relationship can be identified by correlation analysis.Regression analysis was used to examine the relationship between two variables ormore, especially to trace the pattern of relationships that model is not known perfectly, orto find out how the variation of several independent variables affect the dependentvariable in a complex phenomenon. If X1, X2, ..., Xi are independent variables and Y is the dependent variable, then there is the functional relationship between X and Y, where the variation of X will be accompanied also by the variation of Y. The mathematicalrelationships above can be described as follows: Y = f (X1, X2, ..., Xi, e), where: Y is thedependent variable, X is the independent variable and e is the residual variable(disturbance term).
Related to this regression analysis, there are at least four four activities that can beimplemented in the regression analysis, including: (1) entered into estimates ofparameters based on empirical data, (2) examine how much variation of the dependentvariable can be explained by variations in the independent variables, (3) test whetherthe estimated parameters were significant or not, and (4) to see whether the sign andmagnitude of the estimated parameters match the theory (M. Nazir, 1983).


Simple regression, aims to study the relationship between two variables. Simpleregression model is, where, is the dependent variable (bound), X is the independent variable, a is an estimator for intersap (α), b is an estimator for the regressioncoefficient (b), and α, b are parameters whose values are unknown so allegedly usingstatistical sampling.

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Feb 15, 2011

Understanding Statistics

Understanding Statistics

STATISTICAL is a set of methods are discussed: (1) how to collect data that can provide optimal information, (2) how to summarize, process and present data, (3) how to conduct an analysis of the data set, so it arises from an analysis strategy -specific strategies, (4) how to draw conclusions and suggest that decisions should be taken, on the basis of the existing strategy, and (5) how to determine the risk of errors that might occur if we make a decision on the basis of the strategy.

STATISTICS, defined as a collection of facts that shaped figures arranged in the form of a list or table that illustrates a problem. Name statistics depend on the problems described by the statistic that, for example, population statistics, sales statistics, economic statistics and statistics education.

Statistical Classification

DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICAL (descriptive statistics), which discusses ways of collecting data, simplification of the figures obtained by observation (summarize and present), as well as measuring the concentration and distribution of data to obtain information that is more interesting, useful and easily understood. With descriptive statistics, collection of data obtained will be presented with a concise and neat and can provide the core information from existing data sets. The information can be obtained by descriptive statistics, among others, concentration for distributing data, and the tendency of a group of data. Included in the size of the convergence of data such as average, median, and mode. The size of the spread of such range, average deviation, variance, and standard deviation. In addition, the descriptive statistics is also included in the size of the location, such as quartiles, deciles and percentiles

STATISTICAL inference (inferential statistics), which discussed about how to analyze data and draw conclusions (related to parameter estimation and hypothesis testing). Method of statistical inference associated with the analysis of partial data to forecast or conclusion about the overall data. This method is often called inductive statistics because the conclusion drawn based on information from only partial data (samples). Statistical inference is divided into two groups, namely STATISTICAL STATISTICAL PARAMETRIC and nonparametric.

STATISTICAL PARAMETRIC (parametric statistics), the statistical inference that consider the value of one or more parameters of the population. Parametric statistics are usually associated with quantitative data (minimum scale measuring intervals). In addition, procedures for using parametric statistical analysis of data required to be normal distribution. Examples of parametric statistical analysis was the t test, analysis of Variety (ANOVA), Pearson correlation test and regression test (F test).

STATISTICAL nonparametric (nonparametric statistics) are part of statistical inference that does not pay attention to the value of one or more parameters of the population. Nonparametric statistical methods used to analyze data that can not be assumed normal distribution. Data needed more of a nominal or ordinal measurement scale (qualitative data). Examples of nonparametric statistical analysis: Chi Square Test for Freedom Two Variable Category, Spearman correlation coefficient, Wilcoxon rank sign test, Mann-Whitney test, Kruskal-Wallis, and Friedman Test.
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Work Motivation

A. Understanding Motives and Work Motivation

Human resources is one of the elements that determine the success of an organization achieve the goal, as stated by Moekijat that (2002:1) "man is a very important element in the organization." To achieve the goals of the organization, one of the things that need to be a leader is to give impetus that resulted, distribute, and maintain the behavior of the employees to be willing to work in accordance with the desired organization. Locomotion are referred to as motivation.

David B. Guralnik (Moekijat, 2002: 4) argued that "the motive: an inner drive, impulse, etc. That causes one to act "(motif: a stimulus from within, an impulse, and so forth that cause a person to do something). Then Malay S.P. Hasibuan (2003:141) suggested "The motive is a desire stimulant (Want) and willingness to work one's locomotion. Motives are sometimes defined as the need (needs), controller (drives), or impulse in a person. " A.A. Anwar King Mangkunegara (2001:93) defines "motive as a need for a boost in self-employees who need to be met for these employees can adapt to their environment."

Below are presented several definitions of motivation from some experts cited by Moekijat (2002:5), namely:

George R. Terry argued that "motivation is the desire" Within an individual That stimulates uterus or her to action "(motivation is a desire within an individual who encourages him to act).
Harold Koontz argued that the "motivation refers to the drive and effort to satisfy a goal or Want" (motivation shows encouragement and effort to meet / satisfy a need or to achieve a goal).
Committee Term Management and Construction Management Education Institute (Dictionary of Terms Management) suggested that the motivation is the process or factors that encourage people to act or behave a certain way. The process of motivation include: (1) Introduction and assessment of needs that have not been satisfied, (2) Determination of goals that will satisfy needs, and (3) determination of measures necessary to satisfy the needs.
According Veithzal Rival (2005:455), "Motivation is a set of attitudes and values that influence individuals to achieve specific things in accordance with individual goals." Then, according to Sondra P. Siagian (2004: 138) that:

Motivation is the driving force that resulted in one member of the organization want and willing to exert the ability, in the form of expertise or skill, effort and time to carry out various activities which it is responsible and fulfill its obligations, in the achievement of goals and targets organizations that had been predetermined.

Yuniarsih grandchildren, et al (1998:149-150) argues that "Motivation is a psychological process that is inside every person, a driving force (inner drives) that will produce the behavior to perform an action or activity." Gibson et al (1996:185) argues that "Motivation is the force that drives someone who raises and directs employee behavior." Then Malay S.P. Hasibuan (2003:92) points out:

Motivation comes from the Latin word meaning movere pengerak impetus or power. Motivation is granted only to humans, especially to his subordinates or followers. Motivations questioned how to encourage morale subordinates, so they want to work hard to provide all the capabilities and skills to achieve company goals.

Greenberg and Baron (YH Djatmiko, 2005:67) defines that "Work motivation is a process that encourages, directing and maintaining human behavior towards the achievement of a goal." In line with statements of Ernest J. McCormick (AA Anwar King Mangkunegara, 2005:94) in relation to the work environment suggests that the "Work motivation is defined as the which conditions influence the arousal, direction and maintenance of behaviors relevant in work settings. Which means that "Work motivation is defined as conditions that affect arouse, direct and maintain behaviors associated with the work environment."

From the understanding of the motives, motivation and work motivation suggested by experts in the above can be concluded that the motive is an incentive or a driving force in the one who needs to be met for that person to adjust to the environment. Motivation is the driving force that causes the willingness and readiness within the individual to do various tasks which it is responsible to achieve goals. Motivation arises at the instigation of an individual who can drive and direct behavior. Meanwhile, work motivation is the process of encouraging, directing human behavior associated with the work environment to achieve objectives.

B. Objectives Motivation

According Gouzali Saydam (2005:328) the purpose of the motivation is to

  • Changing the behavior of employees in accordance with the wishes of the company;
  • Increase passion and morale;
  • Improving the work discipline;
  • Improving job performance;
  • Enhance employee morale;
  • Increase sense of responsibility;
  • Increase productivity and efficiency;
  • Fostering employee loyalty to the company.
Then Malay Hasibuan (2003:97-98) suggested that motivation has a purpose, namely:

  • Encourage enthusiasm and morale of employees;
  • Improve employee morale and job satisfaction;
  • Improve employee productivity;
  • Maintaining employee loyalty and stability of the company;
  • Improve discipline and lower levels of absenteeism;
  • Streamline the procurement officer;
  • Creating an atmosphere and good working relationships;
  • Enhancing creativity and partisipasai employees;
  • Increasing levels of kesejahteraaaan employees;
  • Enhance employees' sense of responsibility towards their duties;
  • Improving the efficiency of use of tools and raw materials;
  • And so forth.
From the experts in the above statement, the authors conclude that administration of motivation can be said to be very important because the leader or manager requires good cooperation with subordinates to carry out the tasks of the organization in achieving the goals set. The importance of motivation to subordinates is to keep them going and willing to carry out its tasks in accordance with the expertise or skills they possess.

C. The principle motivation
According to Malay S.P. Hasibuan (2003:98) motivation principles include:
  1. Enrolling principle. This means that invite subordinates to participate and give them the opportunity to submit opinions, recommendations in the decision making process.
  2. Principle of Communication. That is clearly informed about the objectives, ways to do it and the constraints faced.
  3. Recognition Principle. It means giving awards, praise and recognition of the right and fair to subordinates on work performance are achieved.
  4. The principle of delegated authority. It means giving authority, and confidence in subordinates, that with the ability and creativity, he was able to do those tasks well.
  5. The principle of fair and reasonable. That is kind of motivational tool and provided should be based on "fairness and adequacy" of all employees. For example, giving gifts or punishment against all employees must be fair and reasonable if the problem is the same.
  6. Principle of Reciprocal Attention. This means that a subordinate who succeed in achieving well, then the leadership must be willing to provide equipment and type of motivation. Strictly speaking mutually beneficial cooperation for both parties. 

D. Motivation Methods

According to Malay S.P. Hasibuan (2003:100), motivation methods consist of:
  1. Direct Methods (Direct Motivation), is the motivation (material and nonmaterial) given directly to each individual employee to meet the needs and satisfaction. So the special nature such as giving praise, rewards, bonuses, charter, and so forth.
  2. Indirect Method (Indirect Motivation), is given only motivation is the facilities that support and passion to support the work / fluency task, so the employees feel at home and eager to do his job. Motivation is a big influence indirectly to stimulate the spirit of work of employees, so that labor productivity increases.
The method is a very important thing in an activity, which is a means used for its intended purpose can be achieved. Therefore, a leader needs to do a proper method of motivation to his subordinates.

Before giving the motivation to his subordinates, a leader must know, learn, and understand in advance what the motive subordinates are willing to work. A leader is impossible to provide the same motivation to different people. This depends of the factors that drive a person willing to work, for example, there are employees who work diligently and have a high loyalty to the organization. But there are also employees who are lazy to work.

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